All you need to know-uneed2know.eu
Go Up

Top 101 Ferocious prehistoric creatures

Add to favourite
Back
Habitat
Type of predator
Living period

Dunkleosteus-a hypercarnivorous bone crusher

Sponsored links

Sponsored links


History

Dunkleosteus was named in 1956 to honour David Dunkle, then curator of Vertebrate Paleontology at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. The type species (D. terreli) was originally described in 1873 as a species of Dinichthys.

most dangerous sea creatures,Dunkleosteus,Dunkleosteus most powerfull bite,heavily armoured fish,Dunkleosteus terrelli


Description

Dunkleosteus was a large Placoderm that lived in the late Devonian period, about 370 – 360 million years ago. It grew to around 8 to 10 metres (20 to 30 feet), weighing 3.6 tonnes (4.0 short tons), was a hypercarnivorous apex predator. Few other placoderms, save, perhaps, its contemporary, Titanichthys, rivaled Dunkleosteus in size and was probably the top predator of its time. Dunkelosteus belongs to the Placodermi, a family of armour-plated fishes. Dunkelosteus was probably the largest member of this family. The Placodermi first started appearing in the Silurian, and all of them were extinct by the late Devonian.

There are no modern descendants.Dunkleosteus had the most powerful bite of any fish, well ahead of sharks, including the Great White. Dunkleosteus could concentrate a force of up to 8,000 pounds (3,628 kg) per square inch at the tip of its mouth, effectively placing Dunkleosteus in the league of Tyrannosaurus rex and modern crocodiles as having the most powerful known bite.Dunkleosteus could also open its mouth in one-fiftieth of a second, which would have caused a powerful suction that pulled the prey into its mouth, a food-capture technique reinvented by many of the most advanced teleost fishes today.Due to its heavily armoured nature, Dunkleosteus was likely a relatively slow (albeit powerful) swimmer. A dunkleosteus was possibly the the size of a great white shark.


most dangerous sea creatures,Dunkleosteus,Dunkleosteus most powerfull bite,heavily armoured fish,Dunkleosteus terrelli

Dunkleosteus is a member of the pachyosteomorph arthrodires, and is more specifically usually placed in the family Dinichthyidae, a family composed mostly of large, carnivorous arthrodires like Gorgonichthys. Anderson (2009) suggests that because of its primitive jaw structure Dunkleosteus should be placed outside the family Dinichthyidae, perhaps close to the base of the clade Pachyosteomorpha, near Eastmanosteus,but this idea has yet to be tested. New studies have revealed several features in both its food and biomechanics as its ecology and physiology. Placodermi first appeared in the Silurian, and the group became extinct during the transition from the Devonian to the Carboniferous, leaving no descendants. The class lasted barely 50 million years, in comparison to the 400 million year long history of sharks. Massive bony plates protected its head and part of its body. A hinge at the back of its skull allowed the head to rise and the jaws to lower giving Dunkleosteus an enormous, powerful bite.

Due to its heavily armoured nature, Dunkleosteus was likely a relatively slow, but powerful, swimmer. It is thought to have dwelled in diverse zones of inshore waters. Fossilization tends to have preserved only the especially armoured frontal sections of specimens, and thus it is uncertain what exactly the hind sections of this ancient fish were like. As such, the reconstructions of the hindquarters are often based on smaller arthrodires, such as Coccosteus, that had hind sections preserved. The most famous specimens of Dunkleosteus are displayed at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Others are displayed at the American Museum of Natural History and in the Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Queensland.

 

 

most dangerous sea creatures,Dunkleosteus,Dunkleosteus most powerfull bite,heavily armoured fish,Dunkleosteus terrelli

Instead of teeth, Dunkleosteus possessed two pairs of sharp bony plates which formed a beak-like structure. After studying a biomechanical model of the fish's jaws, scientists at the Field Museum of Natural History and the University of Chicago concluded that Dunkleosteus had the second most powerful bite of any fish (the giant megalodon being the strongest). Dunkleosteus could concentrate a pressure of up to 8,000 pounds per square inch (55 MPa) at the tip of its mouth, placing Dunkleosteus in the same league as Tyrannosaurus rex and modern crocodiles as having the most powerful known bite. Dunkleosteus could open its mouth in one-fiftieth of a second, which would have caused a powerful suction that pulled the prey into its mouth,[5] a food-capture technique used by many fish today. A skull diagram of Dunkleosteus

 

Habitat

Living in deep sea/oceans from the late Devonian period, Dunkleosteus was one of many species of placoderms, a diverse group of armored fishes that dominated aquatic ecosystems during the Devonian period, from 415 million to 360 million years ago. The beast's

  

Diet

"Dunkleosteus was able to devour anything in its environment," said study leader Philip Anderson, at the Department of Geophysical Sciences at the University of Chicago. Scientists already knew Dunkleosteus was the dominant predator of its time.

This fish was anything but picky with its food. It ate fish, sharks and even its own kind. And it seems that Dunkleosteus suffered from indigestion as a result: its fossils are often associated with regurgitated, semi-digested remains of fish. Type: Placoderm fish Size: 8 to 10m Diet: Carnivore Predators: Probably none Lived: Late Devonian, 370-360 million years ago. Speedy, powerful and happy to eat most things - this was the creature to avoid, 360 million years ago.

It was a vicious, gluttonous hunter, and probably ate whatever hapless creature it could overpower. The discovery of Dunkleosteus armor with unhealed bite marks strongly suggest that they cannibalized each other when the opportunity arose. Frequently, fossils of Dunkleosteus are found with boluses of fish bones, semi-digested and partially eaten remains of other fish. As a result, the fossil record indicates that it may have routinely regurgitated prey bones rather than digesting them.

 

Species

There have been at least ten different species of Dunkleosteus described so far.

Dunkleosteus terrelli
This is the largest, best known species of the genus. It has a rounded snout. D. terrelli's fossil remains are found in Upper Famennian to Upper Frasnian Late Devonian strata of the United States (Huron and Cleveland Shales of Ohio, the Conneaut of Pennsylvania, Chattanooga Shale of Tennessee, Lost Burro Formation, California, and possibly Ives breccia of Texas) and Europe.

Dunkleosteus  belgicus
Known from fragments described from the Fammennian of Belgium.

Dunkleosteus denisoni
Known from a small median dorsal plate, typical in appearance for Dunkleosteus, but much small than normal.

Dunkleosteus marsaisi
Dunkleosteus marsaisi refers to the Dunkleosteus fossils from the Lower Famennian Late Devonian strata of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. It differs in size, the known skulls averaging a length of 35 centimetres and in form to D. terrelli. In D. marsaisi, the snout is more narrow, and there may be a postpineal fenestra present. Many researchers and authorities consider it a synonym of D. terrelli. H. Schultze regards Dunkleosteus marsaisi as a member of Eastmanosteus.

Dunkleosteus magnificus
A large placoderm from the Frasnian Rhinestreet shale of New York. It was originally described as "Dinichthys magnificus" by Hussakof and Bryant in 1919, then as "Dinichthys mirabilis" by Heintz in 1932. Dunkle and Lane moved it to Dunkleosteus in 1971.

Dunkleosteus missouriensis
Known from fragments from Frasnian Missouri. Dunkle and Lane regard them as being very similar to D. terrelli.

Dunkleosteus newberryi
Known primarily from a 28 centimetre long infragnathal that has a prominent anterior cusp. Found in the Frasnian portion of the Genesee group of New York, and originally described as "Dinichthys newberryi". Dunkleosteus amblyodoratus

Dunkleosteus amblyodoratus 
Is known from some fragmentary remains from Late Devonian strata of Kettle Point, Canada. The species name means "blunt spear," and refers to the way the nuchal and paranuchal plates in the back of the head form the shape of a blunted spearhead. Although it is known only from fragments, it is estimated to have been about 20 feet long in life.

Dunkleosteus raveri
Dunkleosteus raveri is a small, possibly 1-metre-long species known from an uncrushed skull roof, found in a carbonate concretion from near the bottom of the Huron Shale, of the Famennian Ohio Shale strata. Besides its small size, it had comparatively large eyes. Because D. raveri was found in the strata directly below the strata where the remains of D. terrelli are found, it is suggested that D. raveri may have given rise to D. terrelli. The species name commemorates Clarence Raver of Wakeman, Ohio, U.S., who discovered the concretion the holotype was found in.

 

 Intresting Facts

  • It was big. It was mean. And it could bite a shark in two.
  • Now scientists have learned Dunkleosteus had the most powerful jaws of any fish ever, its bite rivaling that of T. rex and modern alligators. could chomp with 1,100 pounds of force, which translates to 8,000 pounds per square inch at the tip of a fang.dunkleosteus_large_hunting


  • Speedy, powerful and happy to eat most things - this was the creature to avoid, 360 million years ago. Scientists say Dunkleosteus terrelli might have been "the first king of the beasts." Dunkleosteus looked like the violent brute it was: powerfully built and armour-plated round its head.
  • Dunkleosteus lacked true teeth, instead it had two long bony blades that could snap and crush almost anything. Pigment cells suggest Dunkleosteus had dark colours on its back and was silvery on its belly.
  • This fish was anything but picky with its food. It ate fish, sharks and even its own kind. And it seems that Dunkleosteus suffered from indigestion as a result: its fossils are often associated with regurgitated, semi-digested remains of fish. And it was quick, opening its jaws in just one-fiftieth of a second. That action would have created suction to draw prey into its mouth.
  • Dunkleosteus was the fifth most dangerous sea predator in Sea Monsters. The show counted down the top 7 most dangerous sea creatures in history. Dunkleosteus was depicted as being canniballistic and capable of bending metal. The Devonian predator also made a brief appearance in the video game ParaWorld.  

 

Sponsored links



 

 

 

Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunkleosteus
http://www.miguasha.ca
http://downloads.safariltd.com/files/Catalog_Images/2012/2012_New_Items/Wild_Safari_Dinos_&_Prehistoric_Life/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/piedmont_fossil/3115268058/sizes/o/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/baggis/5040125114/
http://www.shrani.si
http://blog.webosaurs.com
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15940709/
http://www.smh.com.au/news/science/jaws-of-steel-on-this-fish-tank/2006/11/29/1164777657728.html
Share

Facebook comments (0)

u2know comments (0)

Add a comment

I have account on u2know
E-mail
Password
Remember me Forgot password?
Comment
Notify me of follow up comments via e-mail